In this submission, I’d like to explore the concept of typography by focusing on how typefaces convey different interpretations (Lupton 2010; Cater 2014).

Typography refers to an arrangement of handwriting letters or digital types both visually and spatially. By using three applications (Typic, FORK & Filmr) for editing picture and video, I tried to manipulate different typefaces on several pictures in order to cater to the established interpretations of each content. At the beginning, I decided to make two posters for movies. The first one is for horror film, which the title in the Sans serif typeface shows emphasis (Pluralsight 2015), and its fonts indicates a feeling of shock and fear due to its rigid, unstable shape. The slogan part uses dull Monospaced typeface designed with large spaces between each letter, and it seems duller and wilier while I continued expanding the letter spacing. In a word, the typography of this poster conveys the emotion of horror movies coherently.

The second one is for romance film, so mostly I chose Script typefaces for texts on the poster. Those typefaces are current properly and they look beautiful and elegant. Texts within these typefaces may be casual and hard-to-read (Bernazzani 2017), but they provide the impression of mystery and romance. The title in Serif typeface also shows the mood of romance and elegance due to the small lines tailing from edges of letters (Pluralsight 2015). To explore the interactivity between users and typographic setting according to Lupton (2010), designer handles a piece of text as a whole, in order to direct users to read coherently and selectively, to get primary message or ignore unnecessary information in a probable non-linear, spatial dimension instead of a single direction (Lupton 2010). Therefore, I thought that information like film certificate could be in sans serif typefaces, since the simple letter forms within this typeface are clear even in small size (Pluralsight 2015).  In the digital age, readers prefer checking, screening and acquiring instead of considering and dealing. Thus, high visual density requires typography to maximise delivered messages efficiently (Tufte cited in Lupton 2010) and even help users make choices unconsciously under the context of attention competition. The combination of typefaces and the layout of texts direct reader’s focus of attention and mediate their own interpretation of the delivered message.

Written text is a Visual translation of speech, as stated by Lupton (2010) spacing and punctuation could silently mark the break between words visually, as well as the design of any typeface may compensate for the loss of those things like tone or volume which only exist in the voice. Thus, I created dialogue between figures in other two pictures by adding type within different typefaces. Different typefaces are not only designed to look nice but also to convey specific interpretation. The message of one typographic text and the use of typeface cannot contradict each other. I set different fonts for texts in the speech bubbles to show calm, mature or wilful, childlike, youthful and happy so that typography could connote the personalities of each character (Bernazzani 2017).

This composition is basically made up of four pictures (Halloween Cat by Silversolo, Monkey Family by Matt Gillman, Family Grouping by Peter Trimming Family Quarrel by Jevgenijs Slihto), available under a Creative Commons Attribution license. The all cap and sans serif typeface used for headings and narrative in the video is to emphasis and to make content easy to read.


Lupton, E. 2010, Thinking with Type, 2nd edn, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, pp. 85-100.

Pluralsight 2015, The Meaning Behind Your Chosen Typeface, viewed 30 August 2018, <https://www.pluralsight.com/blog/creative-professional/meaning-behind-chosen-typeface>

Sophia Bernazzani 2017, Fonts & Feelings: Does Typography Connote Emotions?, viewed 31 August 2018, <https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/typography-emotions>

TEDx, (2014). My life in typefaces: Matthew Carter at TED. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xjxyEwjG2Es [Accessed 30 Aug. 2018]


Reproduction & Aura


I’d like to represent the concepts of ‘reproduction’ and ‘aura’ through a digital image manipulation. The compositing is accomplished vis Photoshop.

According to Benjamin (1970), artwork is recreated by one in imitation of others and thus the works of art become reproducible. Mechanical reproduction has brought profits and to some extent has shown creativity, even has reactivated the original. However, the unique essences of objects reproduced – the authenticity and the aura – might be weakened by reproduction, since the work of art born with communicable authenticity which could be easily altered during reproducing or mediated by tumultuous history. And before mechanical reproduction contributes to the liberation for artifacts from restriction of ritual and cult, the aura of artworks is always about unapproachability.

Digital literacies require that one not only look at a digital work on the surface but also the capacity of understanding aura. In other words, it is important to realise the atmosphere surrounded the substance of works of art or to sense an emotion vibration from implication in the works. To connect those concept with my own work, I realised that the aura could be so tied to artworks’ essence that it might cannot be replicated. Reproduction could only make a new, different or deeper aura. I chose to manipulate an image to actualise the process of reproduction and engage with the concept of aura. Ravelli and Van Leeuwen (2018) believe that digital manipulation cannot reproduce artifacts’ or nature’s uniqueness and possibilities. However, Benjamin (1970) states that technology has an illusionary function which could lead audience into the reality immediately, unlike watching plays in a theatre or visiting an painting exhibition.

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The original photography I found from the internet which shows an angry man. Regarding the copyright of the original picture, reworking the image in a non-profit educational setting is considered fair use. In the picture, the figure’s face twists in anger. He stares at the front wide-eyed and shouts with fists clenched. In the original, the figure is in the central with grey background, which, makes this picture reproducible because of its enough room for imagination and manipulation without being influenced by the context of the man’s facial expression. When the main focus is anger, I tried to reproduce the original realistic photograph by representing the aura of anger in an abstract way. Anger could make people be irrational or go insane and this emotion sometimes would cause destructive consequences. In these circumstances, anger is like an explosion that things could quickly out of control and the fallout is slow and painful. With that perspective, I tend to exaggerate the emotion of anger and create an aura of absurd and ridiculousness.

In the Photoshop, firstly I selected some pieces of the man’ face and create several layers within those pieces blurred radially to reach an explosion effect. The man’s face start exploding, every pieces from him begin coming apart, it seems as though his mind being unclear. I thought it is a clear manifestation of the man’s anger. Finally I decided to convert half the photograph into black and white. Because one of the modality’s ‘makers’ theories from Ravelli and Van Leeuwen (2018) claims that colour shows the unreal fantasy and black and white indicate harsh reality. Deep down you’ve lost control while you may still assume that you are angry reasonably. In my opinion, there is a new aura of absurd in the manipulated photograph through reproducing. 






[Angry man] [image]. (n.d.). [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://banterloud.com/2015/05/01/life-lessons-angry-conversations-with-a-stranger-on-a-train-with-unexpected-twists/

Benjamin, W. 1970, ‘The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction’, Illuminations, pp.211-244.

Ravelli, L. J., & Van Leeuwen, T. 2018, ‘Modality in the digital age’, Visual Communication, vol.17, no.3, pp.277-297.

About Digital Literacy


Digital Literacy Framework illustrations by Marc Rosenthal for Teaching Tolerance. tolerance.org


Last week, I began this subject named Digital Literacy. The first task for me is to reflect on my own understanding of Digital Literacy as well as the experiences relative to the concept. I was stressed out at the first place, since I do not even ensure the meaning of the word ‘literacy’ when I was enrolling in this class. I thought it might be something about media’s culture. However, after having classes and browsing some recommended learning materials, I tend to know the meaning of Digital Literacy.

In my opinion, digital literacy refers to the ability and the behaviour that people absorb information from the Internet by reading, listening to or watching and then release their thoughts or emotions by writing down their reviews online. The interactions between online information and the audience contribute to digital literacy. Because in the past when there is only traditional radio broadcast or someone’s public speech, people cannot give response specifically and the feedback may be significantly delayed (Hartley 2009).

According to Frawley (2017), the people who born in the digital era know about the language of digital world. Unlike the older people who need to learn how to use digital platforms to get what they want and how to interact (Belshaw 2012), net-generation like us could easily learn the skills above.

Belshaw (2012) explains that the key points of digital literacy are remix and quick idea-spread. For example, ‘lolcat’ is a picture of cat with text or caption on the picture. That shows the way people response to the online information by having an idea first, secondly using tools to express their ideas and then spread them to communicate. The process reflects on production and consumption of digital things. And digital literacy contains the concept of this process. I am the one who really like to send lolcats pictures to my friends to express my feelings.


LOLCAT Picture from Internet

I am talking a bit more than I should be there. To conclude, I am interested in this subject ‘Digital Literacy’ now, because our life is with digital literacy everyday as one of the net-generation. Although I am worried about the privacy. I think we cannot trust the internet when we use digital platforms to express ourselves. Also, I am curious about how digital world and how the way we involve in digital literacy will influence us. I am looking forward to finding them out!




Frawley, J. (2017). The Myth Of The ‘Digital Native’. [Blog] Teaching@Sydney. Available at: http://sydney.edu.au/education-portfolio/ei/teaching@sydney/digital-native-myth/ [Accessed 20 Mar. 2017].

Hartley, J. 2009, ‘Repurposing Literacy’, The Uses of Digital Literacy, pp.1-38.

TEDx, (2012). The essential elements of digital literacies: Doug Belshaw at TEDxWarwick. Available at: https://youtu.be/A8yQPoTcZ78 [Accessed 20 Mar. 2017].